Why Was an Agreement with Spain Blocked by Southern States

And considering that there are several treaties of friendship between the two contracting parties and the said Indian nations (2), it is agreed that in the future neither party will conclude a treaty of alliance or anything else (with the exception of peace treaties) with Indians living within the border of the others; but the two sides will strive to ensure that the benefits of Indian trade are common and mutually beneficial to their respective subjects and citizens, who maintain the most complete reciprocity in all things, so that both sides can obtain the benefits that result from a good understanding with the said nations without being subject to the costs they have incurred so far. No subject of His Catholic Majesty may request or receive an order or letters of marque to arm one or more ships in order to act as a privateer against the said United States or against the citizens, persons or residents of the said United States or against the property of any of the inhabitants of any of them. of any prince or state with which the said United States is at war. Louisiana citizens loyal to the French crown held a convention in New Orleans on October 29, 1768 to express their complaints against Spanish authority. They officially called on the Supreme Council to restore the former status of the colony and force Ulloa`s departure. The Supreme Council issued a decree ordering the expulsion of the Spanish governor and drafted a memorandum to be submitted to the French Foreign Minister requesting the reinstatement of the French regime, all without success. Spain, reluctant to tolerate such a revolt, reacted with violence. O`Reilly also introduced a series of reforms to restore Spanish authority. In December 1769 he abolished the Supreme Council and replaced it with the Cabildo. The Cabildo was a form of municipal government widespread throughout Spanish America, a 10-member city council presided over by a governor.

There will be a firm and inviolable peace and sincere friendship between His Catholic Majesty, his successors and subjects, and the United States and its citizens, without exception of persons or places. In order to put an end to all differences due to the losses suffered by the citizens of the United States as a result of the takeover of their ships and cargoes by the subjects of His Catholic Majesty during the Late War between Spain and the France, it is agreed that all such cases shall be referred to the final decision of the Commissioners, who will be named as follows. His Catholic Majesty appoints a commissioner, and the President of the United States appoints another by and with the Council and the approval of his Senate, and the two commissioners mentioned agree on the election of a third, or, if they cannot agree, they will each propose a person, and of the two names so proposed, one shall be drawn by lot in the presence of the two original commissioners. and the person from whom the name is to be so drawn is the third commissioner, and the three commissioners so appointed shall take an oath impartially to examine and decide on the applications in question on the basis of the merits of the various cases and for the sake of justice, equality and the laws of nations. The said commissioners shall meet and sit in Philadelphia, and in the event of the death, illness or necessary absence of such a commissioner, his place shall be made available in the same manner as he was first appointed, and the new commissioner shall take the same oaths and perform the same duties. They shall receive all complaints and requests approved under this Article for eighteen months from the date on which they are established. They have the power to investigate any person presented to them under oath or confirmation regarding the complaints in question, as well as to receive as evidence any certified written testimony in a manner they deem appropriate or admit appropriate. The award of those Commissioners or of two of them shall be final and final, both as regards the fairness of the claim and the amount to be paid to the applicants; and His Catholic Majesty undertakes to charge them in cash without deduction at the times and places and under the conditions granted by the said Commissioners. Negotiations progressed rapidly and, at the end of April, the US envoys agreed to pay $11,250,000 and assumed their citizens` claims against the France in the amount of $3,750,000.

In return, the United States acquired the vast domain of the Louisiana Territory, about 828,000 square miles of land. In October, Congress ratified the purchase, and in December 1803, the France officially transferred authority over the region to the United States. The acquisition of the Louisiana Territory at a bargain price of less than three cents per morning was Thomas Jefferson`s most notable achievement as president. American westward expansion into the new lands began immediately, and in 1804 a territorial government was established. On April 30, 1812, exactly nine years after the Louisiana Purchase Agreement, the first of the territory`s 13 cut-off states – Louisiana – became the 18th U.S. state to join the Union. It defined the boundary between the United States and Spain-Florida and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River. With this agreement, the first phase of the ongoing border dispute between the two countries in this region, commonly known as the West Florida controversy, has come to an end.

[1] Nor may a citizen, subject or resident of the United States request or receive an order or letters of marque to arm one or more ships in order to act as a privateer against the subjects of His Catholic Majesty or the property of any of them of a prince or state with which the said king will be at war. And if a person from one of the two nations accepts such orders or letters of the mark, he will be punished as a pirate. Prior to 1789, Spanish policy had focused on minimizing American trade and colonization in border areas, and so neither Spanish colonial officials nor policymakers in Madrid were interested in granting the concessions that American negotiators had previously attempted. However, Spanish interests changed during the wars of the French Revolution. Spain joined the other European monarchies in the war against France in 1793, but in 1794 Spanish forces suffered defeats in the Caribbean and Europe. King Charles IV of Spain, who was not interested in settling political affairs, had previously transferred political and diplomatic responsibility to his prime minister, Manuel de Godoy. Godoy tried to pull Spain out of its alliance with its traditional enemy Britain and restore peace with the France. Godoy`s policy was not without risks, as British hostility would endanger the Spanish colonies in America. In order to avoid all disputes over the boundaries separating the territories of the two High Contracting Parties, it is explained and agreed as follows: The southern border of the United States, which separates its territory from the Spanish colonies of East and West Florida, is designated by a line that begins at the Mississippi River in the northernmost part of the thirty-first parallel north of the Mississippi River. The equator from which it is to be drawn eastwards in the middle of the Apalachicola or Catahouche River, from there along the middle to its mouth in the Flint, from there directly to the head of the St. Mary`s River and from there in the middle to the Western Atlantic.

And it is agreed that if there are troops, garrisons or colonies of one Party in the territory of the others in accordance with the above-mentioned borders, they shall be withdrawn from that territory within six months of ratification of this Treaty or earlier, if possible, and that they shall be authorized to produce all goods and effects, that they own. Although Louisiana obtained more extensive privileges than other Spanish colonies, trade restrictions were imposed. Louisiana trade was limited to nine ports in Spain, and the passage of a ship that had no captain or crew, two-thirds of which were Spanish, was prohibited. Trade with Britain and Mexico was banned and the importation of French wine into the colony was banned. The United States and Spain agreed not to incite indigenous tribes to war and to promote mutually beneficial trade relations between tribes on both sides of the border. [3] Previously, Spain had supplied arms to local tribes for many years. The agreement placed the lands of the Chickasaw and Choctaw nations of the American Indians within the new borders of the United States. [4] The two High Contracting Parties shall maintain, by all means at their disposal, peace and harmony between the various Indian nations which inhabit the lands adjacent to the lines and rivers which, according to the preceding articles, form the borders of the two Floridas; and to achieve this end, both parties expressly undertake to limit by force all hostilities of the Indian nations living within their borders: so that Spain does not incite its Indians to attack the citizens of the United States, nor the Indians who inhabit their territory; Nor will the United States allow the latter Indians to begin hostilities against the subjects of His Catholic Majesty or His Indians in any way.